A single subcutaneous (SC) injection of plerixafor results in rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors, but fails to mobilize 33% of normal allogeneic sibling donors in 1 apheresis. We hypothesized that changing the route of administration of plerixafor fromSCto IV may overcome the low stem cell yields and allow collection in 1 day.Aphase 1 trial followed by a phase 2 efficacy trial was conducted in allogeneic sibling donors. The optimal dose of IV plerixafor was determined to be 0.32 mg/kg. The primary outcome of reducing the failure to collect≥2×106 CD34+/kg recipient weight in 1 apheresis collection to ≤10% was not reached. The failure rate was 34%. Studies evaluating the stem cell phenotype and gene expression revealed a novel plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursor preferentially mobilized by plerixafor with high interferon-α producing ability. The observed cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia rate for patients at risk was low (15%), as were the rates of acute grade 2-4 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (21%). Day 100 treatment related mortality was low (3%). In conclusion, plerixafor results in rapid stem cell mobilization regardless of route of administration and resulted in novel cellular composition of the graft and favorable recipient outcomes. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials. gov as #NCT00241358 and #NCT00914849.