Carrier-facilitated pyruvate transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane plays an essential role in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 (Mpc2) is believed to be a component of the complex that facilitates mitochondrial pyruvate import. Complete MPC2 deficiency resulted in embryonic lethality in mice. However, a second mouse line expressing an N-terminal truncated MPC2 protein (Mpc2δ16) was viable but exhibited a reduced capacity for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. Metabolic studies demonstrated exaggerated blood lactate concentrations after pyruvate, glucose, or insulin challenge in Mpc2δ16 mice. Additionally, compared with wild-type controls, Mpc2δ16 mice exhibited normal insulin sensitivity but elevated blood glucose after bolus pyruvate or glucose injection. This was attributable to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and was corrected by sulfonylurea KATP channel inhibitor administration. Collectively, these data are consistent with a role for MPC2 in mitochondrial pyruvate import and suggest that Mpc2 deficiency results in defective pancreatic β cell glucose sensing.