Mitochondria are the main suppliers of neuronal adenosine triphosphate and play a critical role in brain energy metabolism. Mitochondria also serve as Ca2+ sinks and anabolic factories and are therefore essential for neuronal function and survival. Dysregulation of neuronal bioenergetics is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease. This review describes the role of mitochondria in energy metabolism under resting conditions and during synaptic transmission, and presents evidence for the contribution of neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction to Parkinson's disease.
- synaptic transmission