Minocycline Reduces Spontaneous Hemorrhage in Mouse Models of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

Ping Yan, Alec Zhu, Fan Liao, Qingli Xiao, Andrew W. Kraft, Ernie Gonzales, Ron Perez, Steven M. Greenberg, David M. Holtzman, Jin Moo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose-Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Previous studies have shown that CAA induces inflammation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinases) in amyloid-laden vessels. Here, we inhibited both using minocycline in CAA mouse models to determine whether spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage could be reduced. Methods-Tg2576 (n=16) and 5xFAD/ApoE4 knockin mice (n=16), aged 17 and 12 months, respectively, were treated with minocycline (50 mg/kg, IP) or saline every other day for 2 months. Brains were extracted and stained with X-34 (to quantify amyloid), Perls' blue (to quantify hemorrhage), and immunostained to examined β-amyloid peptide load, gliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], Iba-1), and vascular markers of blood-brain barrier integrity (zonula occludins-1 [ZO-1] and collagen IV). Brain extracts were used to quantify mRNA for a variety of inflammatory genes. Results-Minocycline treatment significantly reduced hemorrhage frequency in the brains of Tg2576 and 5xFAD/ApoE4 mice relative to the saline-treated mice, without affecting CAA load. Gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1 immunostaining), gelatinase activity, and expression of a variety of inflammatory genes (matrix metalloproteinase-9, NOX4, CD45, S-100b, and Iba-1) were also significantly reduced. Higher levels of microvascular tight junction and basal lamina proteins were found in the brains of minocycline-treated Tg2576 mice relative to saline-treated controls. Conclusions-Minocycline reduced gliosis, inflammatory gene expression, gelatinase activity, and spontaneous hemorrhage in 2 different mouse models of CAA, supporting the importance of matrix metalloproteinase-related and inflammatory pathways in intracerebral hemorrhage pathogenesis. As a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, minocycline might be considered for clinical trials to test efficacy in preventing CAA-related intracerebral hemorrhage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1633-1640
Number of pages8
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 4 2015


  • apolipoproteins E
  • cerebral amyloid angiopathy
  • cerebral hemorrhage
  • gliosis
  • matrix metalloproteinase-9
  • minocycline


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