Prostate cancer is an increasing medical problem. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy are effective treatments, but have the risk of significant morbidity. Clinicians have strived to develop new modalities of treatment that can maintain the excellent treatment outcomes of radical prostatectomy, but diminish the morbidity. Improved instrumentation, optics, and robotic technology have allowed the application of laparoscopic techniques to radical prostatectomy. Patients can have less blood loss and expect more rapid recovery. Intermediate oncologic outcomes appear similar to radical prostatectomy with good functional results. Cryotherapy and HIFU are tissue ablative approaches rather than extirpative approaches to prostate cancer treatment. They attempt to use nonsurgical methods to treat prostate cancer with the hope of providing oncologic control comparable to surgery and radiation while minimizing morbidity.