Background: A heel rise task can be used to evaluate midfoot and ankle movement dysfunction in people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Quantifying movement coordination during heel rise is important to better understand potentially detrimental movement strategies in people with foot pathologies; however, coordination and the impact of limited excursion on coordination is not well-understood in people with diabetes. Methods: Sixty patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, and 22 older and 25 younger controls performed single-limb heel rise task. Midfoot (forefoot relative to hindfoot) sagittal and ankle (hindfoot relative to shank) sagittal and frontal kinematics were measured and normalized to time (0 to 100%). Cross-correlation coefficients were calculated across individuals in each group. A graphical illustration was used to interpret the relationship of midfoot and ankle excursion and cross-correlation coefficient during heel rise. Findings: People with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy showed significantly lower midfoot and ankle cross-correlation coefficients during heel rise compared to older controls (p = 0.003–0.007). There was no difference in the midfoot and ankle cross-correlation coefficients during heel rise for the older and younger controls (p = 0.059–0.425). The graphic data illustrated a trend of greater excursion of two joints and a higher cross-correlation coefficient. Some individuals with lower excursion showed a high cross-correlation coefficient. Interpretation: Foot pathologies, but not aging, impairs midfoot and ankle movement coordination during heel rise task. Investigating both movement coordination as well as joint excursion would better inform and characterize the dynamic movements of midfoot and ankle during heel rise task.
- Heel rise
- Peripheral neuropathy