Microscopic and gross extravesical extension in pathological staging of bladder cancer

Marcus L. Quek, John P. Stein, Peter E. Clark, Siamak Daneshmand, Gus Miranda, Jie Cai, Susan Groshen, Richard J. Cote, Gary Lieskovsky, David I. Quinn, Donald G. Skinner

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59 Scopus citations


Purpose: We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients with pathological microscopic (pT3a) and gross (pT3b) extravesical tumor extension with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder following radical cystectomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 236 patients, including 173 males (73%) and 63 females, underwent radical cystectomy for pathological primary bladder TCC with extravesical extension (pT3), of whom 69 (29%) had pT3a and 167 (71%) had pT3b disease. At a median followup of 8.9 years (range 0 to 19.4) lymph node involvement, local and distant recurrences, and clinical outcomes were determined. Results: Of the 236 patients with pT3 tumors 106 (45%) had lymph node positive disease, including 34 of 69 (49%) with pT3a and 72 of 167 (43%) with pT3b disease. The 10-year recurrence-free survival rate for patients with pT3a tumors was 48% compared with 47% for those with pT3b disease (p = 0.89). Recurrence-free survival was significantly better in patients with lymph node negative disease than in those with positive lymph nodes irrespective of the extent of extravesical involvement (pT3a vs pT3b). Local pelvic recurrence developed in 13 of the 236 patients (6%), while 84 (36%) had distant metastatic disease. Of the patients with recurrence, the type of recurrence (local or distant) was not associated with tumor stage (pT3a vs pT3b, p = 0.71). Lymph node involvement was a significant risk factor for distant tumor recurrence (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Differentiating between microscopic (pT3a) and gross (pT3b) extravesical tumor involvement of TCC as outlined in the revised 1997 TNM staging system does not appear to have prognostic significance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)640-645
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number2 I
StatePublished - Feb 2004


  • Bladder
  • Bladder neoplasms
  • Carcinoma
  • Cystectomy
  • Neoplasm staging
  • Transitional cell


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