Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression is now recognized as an important contributor to disease pathogenesis, occurring by mechanisms that alter the function, stability, and translation of RNAs via cis-elements within both coding and noncoding regions of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). A major component in this regulatory paradigm is the binding to RNA-stabilization and translational control elements by microRNAs (miRNAs), frequently in the 3(hermitian conjugative matrix) untranslated region of target mRNA. miRNAs are noncoding endogenously transcribed RNAs that undergo a well-characterized series of processing steps that generate short single-stranded (20-22. nt) RNA fragments that bind to complementary regions within a range of targets and inhibit translation, but primarily trigger mRNA degradation. This chapter will highlight selected advances in the role of miRNAs in liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma and will briefly discuss the utility of miRNAs as biomarkers of liver injury and neoplasia, and how targeting or replenishing miRNAs may provide powerful and effective treatments for these diseases.
|Title of host publication||Translating MicroRNAs to the Clinic|
|Number of pages||38|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2017|
- Liver injury
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis