MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress translation or induce mRNA degradation of target transcripts through sequence-specific binding. miRNAs target hundreds of transcripts to regulate diverse biological pathways and processes, including aging. Many microRNAs are differentially expressed during aging, generating interest in their use as aging biomarkers and roles as regulators of the aging process. In the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, a number of miRNAs have been found to both positive and negatively modulate longevity through canonical aging pathways. Recent studies have also shown that miRNAs regulate age-associated processes and pathologies in a diverse array of mammalian tissues, including brain, heart, bone, and muscle. The review will present an overview of these studies, highlighting the role of individual miRNAs as biomarkers of aging and regulators of longevity and tissue-specific aging processes.