We found interactions between dopamine and oxidative damage in the striatum involved in advanced neurodegeneration, which probably change the microglial phenotype. We observed possible microglia dystrophy in the striatum of neurodegenerative brains. To investigate the interactions between oxidative damage and microglial phenotype, we quantified myeloperoxidase (MPO), poly (ADP-Ribose) (PAR), and triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To test the correlations of microglia dystrophy and tauopathy, we quantified translocator protein (TSPO) and tau fibrils using autoradiography. We chose the caudate and putamen of Lewy body diseases (LBDs) (Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia, and Dementia with Lewy body), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and control brains and genotyped for TSPO, TREM2, and bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) genes using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) assays. TREM2 gene variants were absent across all samples. However, associations between TSPO and BIN1 gene polymorphisms and TSPO, MPO, TREM2, and PAR level variations were found. PAR levels reduced significantly in the caudate of LBDs. TSPO density and tau fibrils decreased remarkably in the striatum of LBDs but increased in AD. Oxidative damage, induced by misfolded tau proteins and dopamine metabolism, causes microglia dystrophy or senescence during the late stage of LBDs. Consequently, microglia dysfunction conversely reduces tau propagation. The G allele of the BIN1 gene is a potential risk factor for tauopathy.
- Lewy body diseases
- Oxidative damage