Assessment of platelet function and coagulation under flow conditions can augment traditional static assays used to evaluate patients with suspected hemostatic or thrombotic disorders. Among the available flow-based assays, microfluidic devices require the smallest blood volume and provide multiple output options. These assays are based on the presence of wall shear stress that mimics in vivo interactions between blood components and vessel walls. Microfluidic devices can generate essential information regarding homeostatic regulation of platelet activation and subsequent engagement of the coagulation cascade leading to fibrin deposition and clot formation. Emerging data suggest that microfluidic assays may also reveal consistent patterns of hemostatic or thrombotic pathology, and could aid in assessing and monitoring patient-specific effects of coagulation-modifying therapies.