Microelectrode arrays, electrosynthesis, and the optimization of signaling on an inert, stable surface

Kendra Drayton-White, Siyue Liu, Yu Chia Chang, Sakashi Uppal, Kevin D. Moeller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Microelectrode arrays are powerful tools for monitoring binding interactions between small molecules and biological targets. In most cases, molecules to be studied using such devices are attached directly to the electrodes in the array. Strategies are in place for calibrating signaling studies utilizing the modified electrodes so that they can be quantified relative to a positive control. In this way, the relative binding constants for multiple ligands for a receptor can potentially be determined in the same experiment. However, there are applications of microelectrode arrays that require stable, tunable, and chemically inert surfaces on the electrodes. The use of those surfaces dictate the use of indirect detection methods that are dependent on the nature of the stable surface used and the amount of the binding partner that is placed on the surface. If one wants to do a quantitative study of binding events that involve molecules on such a stable surface, then once again a method for calibrating the signal from a positive control is needed. Fortunately, the electrodes in an array are excellent handles for conducting synthetic reactions on the surface of an array, and those reactions can be used to tune the surface above the electrodes and calibrate the signal from a positive control. Here, we describe how available Cu-based electrosynthetic reactions can be used to calibrate electrochemical signals on a polymer-coated electrode array and delineate the factors to be considered when choosing a polymer surface for such a study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1488-1498
Number of pages11
JournalBeilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
StatePublished - 2022


  • calibration of binding curves
  • electrochemical signaling
  • microelectrode array


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