Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a ubiquitous bacterium in both the hospital and community setting. There are two major subclassifications of MRSA, community-acquired and healthcare-acquired, each with differing pathogenicity and management. MRSA is increasingly responsible for infections in otherwise healthy, active adults. Local outbreaks affect both professional and amateur athletes and there is increasing public awareness of the issue. Health-acquired MRSA has major cost and outcome implications for patients and hospitals. The increasing prevalence and severity of MRSA means that the orthopaedic community should have a basic knowledge of the bacterium, its presentation and options for treatment. This paper examines the evolution of MRSA, analyses the spectrum of diseases produced by this bacterium and presents current prevention and treatment strategies for orthopaedic infections from MRSA.