Metformin ameliorates gender-and age-dependent hemodynamic instability and myocardial injury in murine hemorrhagic shock

Dzmitry Matsiukevich, Giovanna Piraino, Patrick Lahni, Paul W. Hake, Vivian Wolfe, Michael O'Connor, Jeanne James, Basilia Zingarelli

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23 Scopus citations


Severity of multiple organ failure is significantly impacted by age and gender in patients with hemorrhagic shock. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced organ injury are not fully understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal orchestrator of metabolic responses during stress. We investigated whether hemorrhage-induced myocardial injury is age and gender dependent and whether treatment with metformin, an AMPK activator, affords cardioprotective effects. C57/BL6 young (3–5 months) and mature (9–12 months) male and female mice were subjected to hemorrhagic shock by blood withdrawing followed by resuscitation with blood and Lactated Ringer's solution. Vehicle-treated young and mature mice of both genders had a similar elevation of plasma inflammatory cytokines at 3 h after resuscitation. However, vehicle-treated male mature mice experienced hemodynamic instability and higher myocardial damage than young male mice, as evaluated by echocardiography, histology and cardiovascular injury biomarkers. There was also a gender-dependent difference in cardiovascular injury in the mature group as vehicle-treated male mice exhibited more severe organ injury than female mice. At molecular analysis, vehicle-treated mature mice of both genders exhibited a marked downregulation of AMPKα activation and nuclear translocation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator α when compared with young mice. Treatment with metformin improved cardiovascular function and survival in mature animals of both genders. However, specific cardioprotective effects of metformin were gender-dependent. Metformin did not affect hemodynamic or inflammatory responses in young animals. Thus, our data suggest that targeting metabolic recovery with metformin may be a potential treatment approach in severe hemorrhage in adult population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2680-2691
Number of pages12
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2017


  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Metformin
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator α (PGC-1α)


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