Purpose: To report a case of metaplastic squamous epithelial downgrowth after cataract surgery. Design: Interventional case report. Methods: Clinical, laboratory, and histologic findings are presented. Our study is in compliance with institutional review board guidelines. Results: A 76-year-old man developed anterior chamber inflammation five months after uncomplicated clear corneal cataract surgery. Despite antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapies, the inflammation persisted. An extensive examination failed to demonstrate an infectious etiology or lymphoma. Subsequently, the patient developed an incipient limbal lesion and iris mass. Immunostaining of a biopsy specimen from the iris mass indicated an epithelial-derived tumor. The prephthisical and painful eye was enucleated; histopathology of the globe revealed a contiguous lesion extending from the limbal mass to the iris tumor through the surgical incision site, a finding consistent with metaplastic squamous epithelial downgrowth. Systemic evaluation was negative. Conclusions: After intraocular surgery, metaplastic epithelial downgrowth may occur as a consequence of occult ocular surface squamous neoplasia and masquerade as chronic inflammation; clinicians should be aware of this rare complication.