Purpose: To evaluate whether response assessment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma at 3 months using 11C-methionine-positron emission tomography (MET-PET) is better associated with patient outcome compared with baseline MET-PET or anatomic magnetic resonance imaging alone. Methods and Materials: Patients included were participants in a phase I/II trial of dose-escalated chemoradiation based on anatomic magnetic resonance imaging. Automated segmentation of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was performed at a threshold of 1.5 times mean cerebellar uptake. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank tests. Multivariate analysis for PFS and overall survival was performed using Cox proportional hazards, and spatial overlap between imaging and recurrence volumes were analyzed. Results: Among 37 patients, 15 had gross total resection, of whom 10 (67%) had residual MTV, 16 subtotal resection, and 6 biopsy alone. Median radiation therapy dose was 75 Gy (range, 66-81). Median baseline T1 Gd-enhanced tumor volume (GTV-Gd) was 38.0 cm3 (range, 8.0-81.5). Median pre-CRT MTV was 4.9 cm3 (range, 0-43.8). Among 25 patients with 3-month MET-PET, MTV was only 2.4 cm3 (range, 0.004-18.0) in patients with uptake. Patients with MTV = 0 cm3 at 3 months had superior PFS (18.2 vs 10.1 months, P = .03). On multivariate analysis, larger 3-month MTV (hazard ratio [HR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-4.3, P = .03), persistent MET-PET subvolume (overlap of pre-CRT and 3 month MTV; HR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.2-3.4, P = .06), and increase in MTV (HR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-3.1, P = .09) were the only imaging factors significant for worse PFS. GTV-Gd at recurrence encompassed 97% of the persistent MET-PET subvolume (interquartile range 72%-100%), versus 71% (interquartile range 39%-93%) of baseline MTV, 54% of baseline GTV-Gd (18%-87%), and 78% of 3-month MTV (47%-95%). Conclusions: The majority of patients with apparent gross total resection of glioblastoma have measurable postoperative MTV. Total and persisting MTV 3 months post-CRT were significant predictors of PFS, and persistent MET-PET subvolume was the strongest predictor for localizing tumor recurrence.