Metabolic Tumor Volume Response Assessment Using (11)C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography Identifies Glioblastoma Tumor Subregions That Predict Progression Better Than Baseline or Anatomic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Alone

Sean Miller, Pin Li, Matthew Schipper, Larry Junck, Morand Piert, Theodore S. Lawrence, Christina Tsien, Yue Cao, Michelle M. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate whether response assessment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma at 3 months using 11C-methionine-positron emission tomography (MET-PET) is better associated with patient outcome compared with baseline MET-PET or anatomic magnetic resonance imaging alone. Methods and Materials: Patients included were participants in a phase I/II trial of dose-escalated chemoradiation based on anatomic magnetic resonance imaging. Automated segmentation of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was performed at a threshold of 1.5 times mean cerebellar uptake. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank tests. Multivariate analysis for PFS and overall survival was performed using Cox proportional hazards, and spatial overlap between imaging and recurrence volumes were analyzed. Results: Among 37 patients, 15 had gross total resection, of whom 10 (67%) had residual MTV, 16 subtotal resection, and 6 biopsy alone. Median radiation therapy dose was 75 Gy (range, 66-81). Median baseline T1 Gd-enhanced tumor volume (GTV-Gd) was 38.0 cm3 (range, 8.0-81.5). Median pre-CRT MTV was 4.9 cm3 (range, 0-43.8). Among 25 patients with 3-month MET-PET, MTV was only 2.4 cm3 (range, 0.004-18.0) in patients with uptake. Patients with MTV = 0 cm3 at 3 months had superior PFS (18.2 vs 10.1 months, P = .03). On multivariate analysis, larger 3-month MTV (hazard ratio [HR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-4.3, P = .03), persistent MET-PET subvolume (overlap of pre-CRT and 3 month MTV; HR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.2-3.4, P = .06), and increase in MTV (HR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-3.1, P = .09) were the only imaging factors significant for worse PFS. GTV-Gd at recurrence encompassed 97% of the persistent MET-PET subvolume (interquartile range 72%-100%), versus 71% (interquartile range 39%-93%) of baseline MTV, 54% of baseline GTV-Gd (18%-87%), and 78% of 3-month MTV (47%-95%). Conclusions: The majority of patients with apparent gross total resection of glioblastoma have measurable postoperative MTV. Total and persisting MTV 3 months post-CRT were significant predictors of PFS, and persistent MET-PET subvolume was the strongest predictor for localizing tumor recurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-61
Number of pages9
JournalAdvances in Radiation Oncology
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

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