Neuroimmunology, albeit a relatively established discipline, has recently sparked numerous exciting findings on microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). This review addresses meningeal immunity, a less-studied aspect of neuroimmune interactions. The meninges, a triple layer of membranes-the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater-surround the CNS, encompassing the cerebrospinal fluid produced by the choroid plexus epithelium. Unlike the adjacent brain parenchyma, the meninges contain a wide repertoire of immune cells. These constitute meningeal immunity, which is primarily concerned with immune surveillance of the CNS, and-according to recent evidence-also participates in postinjury CNS recovery, chronic neurodegenerative conditions, and even higher brain function. Meningeal immunity has recently come under the spotlight owing to the characterization of meningeal lymphatic vessels draining the CNS. Here, we review the current state of our understanding of meningeal immunity and its effects on healthy and diseased brains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-620
Number of pages24
JournalAnnual Review of Immunology
StatePublished - Apr 26 2020


  • T cells, behavior
  • meningeal immunity
  • meningeal lymphatic vessels
  • meninges
  • neuroimmunology


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