The present understanding of the pathophysiology of Meniere's disease is reviewed. Pathological findings in the temporal bones of patients with Meniere's symptoms are compared with animal models in which endolymphatic hydrops is surgically induced. The possible factors involved in the hearing disturbance caused by the disease are considered. The natural history and epidemiology of the disease (dependence on sex, age, and hereditary factors) are presented, together with current methods used in evaluating the patient. The range of treatments presently in use is reviewed, including medical therapies (stress reduction, dietary changes, and treatment with diuretics), middle ear pressure manipulations, intratympanic drug therapies, and surgical options, such as endolymphatic sac and vestibular nerve section surgery.
- Endolymph volume
- Endolymphatic hydrops