BACKGROUND There are limited data on outcomes in transplant recipients with a history of pretransplant melanoma. OBJECTIVE To determine whether pretransplant melanoma is associated with differences in survival or posttransplant melanoma risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated the outcomes of 185,039 US transplant recipients from the Transplant Cancer Match Study. We also evaluated the impact of transplantation on 141,441 patients with melanoma identified in cancer registries. RESULTS There were 336 transplant recipients (0.18%) with pretransplant melanoma; they had increased risk of melanoma-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11-64, p < .0001), overall mortality (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5, p = .02), and incident melanoma (HR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.9-9.8, p < .0001) after transplant, compared with recipients without pretransplant melanoma. The 10-year absolute risk difference was 2.97% for melanoma-specific mortality, 3.68% for incident melanoma, and 14.32% for overall mortality. Among the 141,441 patients with melanoma in the general population, 68 (0.05%) subsequently received a transplant. Transplantation increased melanoma-specific mortality, but not significantly (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.61-4.5, p = .32). CONCLUSION Pretransplant melanoma is associated with increased melanoma-specific mortality, overall mortality, and incident melanoma after transplant. Nonetheless, the rarity of melanoma-related events supports the current practice for listing transplant candidates with a history of melanoma.