Medical and nonmedical factors influencing utilization of delayed pushing in the second stage

Heathera Frey, Methodiusg Tuuli, Sarah Cortez, Anthonyo Odibo, Kimberlya Roehl, Anthonyl Shanks, Georgea Macones, Alisong Cahill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective To evaluate factors impacting selection to delayed pushing in the second stage of labor. Study Design This case-control study was a secondary analysis of a large retrospective cohort study. Cases included women who delayed pushing for 60 minutes or more in the second stage of labor. Controls began pushing prior to 60 minutes from the time of diagnosis of complete dilation. Demographic, labor, and nonmedical factors were compared among cases and controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with delayed pushing. Results We identified 471 women who delayed pushing and 4819 controls. Nulliparity, maternal body mass index > 25, high fetal station at complete dilation, regional anesthesia use, and start of second stage during staffing shift change were independent factors associated with increased use of delayed pushing. On the other hand, black race and second-stage management during night shift were associated with lower odds of employing delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more commonly employed in nulliparous women, but 38.9% of multiparous women also delayed pushing. Conclusion We identified multiple factors associated with use of delayed pushing. This study helps to define current patterns of second-stage labor management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-600
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of perinatology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2013


  • delayed pushing
  • labor management
  • second stage


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