Mechanistic insights into Hsp104 potentiation

Mariana P. Torrente, Edward Chuang, Megan M. Noll, Meredith E. Jackrel, Michelle S. Go, James Shorter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a protein disaggregase from yeast, can dissolve protein aggregates connected to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying Hsp104 potentiation remain incompletely defined. Here, we establish that 2-3 subunits of the Hsp104 hexamer must bear an A503V potentiating mutation to elicit enhanced disaggregase activity in the absence of Hsp70. We also define the ATPase and substrate-binding modalities needed for potentiated Hsp104A503V activity in vitro and in vivo. Hsp104A503V disaggregase activity is strongly inhibited by the Y257A mutation that disrupts substrate binding to the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) pore loop and is abolished by the Y662A mutation that disrupts substrate binding to the NBD2 pore loop. Intriguingly, Hsp104A503V disaggregase activity responds to mixtures of ATP and adenosine 5′-(γ-thio)-triphosphate (a slowly hydrolyzable ATP analogue) differently from Hsp104. Indeed, an altered pattern of ATP hydrolysis and altered allosteric signaling between NBD1 and NBD2 are likely critical for potentiation. Hsp104A503V variants bearing inactivating Walker A or Walker B mutations in both NBDs are inoperative. Unexpectedly, however, Hsp104A503V retains potentiated activity upon introduction of sensor-1 mutations that reduce ATP hydrolysis at NBD1 (T317A) or NBD2 (N728A). Hsp104T317A/A503V and Hsp104A503V/N728A rescue TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43), FUS (fused in sarcoma), and α-synuclein toxicity in yeast. Thus, Hsp104A503V displays a more robust activity that is unperturbed by sensor-1 mutations that greatly reduce Hsp104 activity in vivo. Indeed, ATPase activity at NBD1 or NBD2 is sufficient for Hsp104 potentiation. Our findings will empower design of ameliorated therapeutic disaggregases for various neurodegenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5101-5115
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number10
StatePublished - Mar 4 2016


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