Patients with gastrointestinal diseases frequently suffer from skeletal abnormality, characterized by reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and/or joint inflammation. This pathological process is characterized by altered immune cell activity and elevated inflammatory cytokines in the bone marrow microenvironment due to disrupted gut immune response. Gastrointestinal disease is recognized as an immune malfunction driven by multiple factors, including cytokines and signaling molecules. However, the mechanism by which intestinal inflammation magnified by gut-residing actors stimulates bone loss remains to be elucidated. In this article, we discuss the main risk factors potentially contributing to intestinal disease-associated bone loss, and summarize current animal models, illustrating gut-bone axis to bridge the gap between intestinal inflammation and skeletal disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6323
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2019


  • Animal models
  • Bone loss
  • Gut inflammation
  • Mucosal immunity
  • Osteoclasts
  • Risk factors


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