Mechanisms of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection due to SIV coinfection

Allison N. Bucşan, Ayan Chatterjee, Dhiraj K. Singh, Taylor W. Foreman, Tae Hyung Lee, Breanna Threeton, Melanie G. Kirkpatrick, Mushtaq Ahmed, Nadia Golden, Xavier Alvarez, James A. Hoxie, Smriti Mehra, Jyothi Rengarajan, Shabaana A. Khader, Deepak Kaushal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

HIV is a major driver of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. Depletion of CD4+ T cells is assumed to be the basis behind TB reactivation in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) coinfected with HIV. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) coinfected with a mutant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVΔGY) that does not cause depletion of tissue CD4+ T cells during infection failed to reactivate TB. To investigate the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion relative to other mechanisms of SIV-induced reactivation of LTBI, we used CD4R1 antibody to deplete CD4+ T cells in animals with LTBI without lentiviral infection. The mere depletion of CD4+ T cells during LTBI was insufficient in generating reactivation of LTBI. Instead, direct cytopathic effects of SIV resulting in chronic immune activation, along with the altered effector T cell phenotypes and dysregulated T cell homeostasis, were likely mediators of reactivation of LTBI. These results revealed important implications for TB control in HIV-coinfected individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5254-5260
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Volume129
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2 2019

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