Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and is an independent predictor of a worse outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). IVH may result in both injuries to the brain as well as hydrocephalus. This paper reviews evidence on the mechanisms and potential treatments for IVH-induced hydrocephalus. One frequently cited theory to explain hydrocephalus after IVH involves obliteration of the arachnoid villi by microthrombi with subsequent inflammation and fibrosis causing CSF outflow obstruction. Although there is some evidence to support this theory, there may be other mechanisms involved, which contribute to the development of hydrocephalus. It is also unclear whether the causes of acute and chronic hydrocephalus after hemorrhage occur via different mechanisms: mechanical obstruction by blood in the former and inflammation and fibrosis in the latter. Management of IVH and strategies for prevention of brain injury and hydrocephalus are areas requiring further study. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus after IVH may lead to improved strategies to prevent and treat post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-38
Number of pages14
JournalTranslational Stroke Research
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Jul 2012


  • Germinal matrix hemorrhage
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage


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