This chapter focuses on the enzymes and mechanisms involved in lagging-strand DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Recent structural and biochemical progress with DNA polymerase α-primase (Pol α) provides insights how each of the millions of Okazaki fragments in a mammalian cell is primed by the primase subunit and further extended by its polymerase subunit. Rapid kinetic studies of Okazaki fragment elongation by Pol δ illuminate events when the polymerase encounters the double-stranded RNA-DNA block of the preceding Okazaki fragment. This block acts as a progressive molecular break that provides both time and opportunity for the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) to access the nascent flap and cut it. The iterative action of Pol δ and FEN1 is coordinated by the replication clamp PCNA and produces a regulated degradation of the RNA primer, thereby preventing the formation of long-strand displacement flaps. Occasional long flaps are further processed by backup nucleases including Dna2.