Dimerization of membrane protein interfaces occurs during membrane protein folding and cell receptor signaling. Here, we summarize a method that allows for measurement of equilibrium dimerization reactions of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, by measuring the Poisson distribution of subunit capture into liposomes by single-molecule photobleaching analysis. This strategy is grounded in the fact that given a comparable labeling efficiency, monomeric or dimeric forms of a membrane protein will give rise to distinctly different photobleaching probability distributions. These methods have been used to verify the dimer stoichiometry of the Fluc F− ion channel and the dimerization equilibrium constant of the ClC-ec1 Cl−/H+ antiporter in lipid bilayers. This approach can be applied to any membrane protein system provided it can be purified, fluorescently labeled in a quantitative manner, and verified to be correctly folded by functional assays, even if the structure is not yet known.