mda-7/IL-24: Multifunctional cancer-specific apoptosis-inducing cytokine

Pankaj Gupta, Zao zhong Su, Irina V. Lebedeva, Devanand Sarkar, Moira Sauane, Luni Emdad, Michael A. Bachelor, Steven Grant, David T. Curiel, Paul Dent, Paul B. Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

164 Scopus citations

Abstract

"Differentiation therapy" provides a unique and potentially effective, less toxic treatment paradigm for cancer. Moreover, combining "differentiation therapy" with molecular approaches presents an unparalleled opportunity to identify and clone genes mediating cancer growth control, differentiation, senescence, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Subtraction hybridization applied to human melanoma cells induced to terminally differentiate by treatment with fibroblast interferon (IFN-β) plus mezerein (MEZ) permitted cloning of melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes. Founded on its novel properties, one particular mda gene, mda-7, now classified as a member of the interleukin (IL)-10 gene family (IL-24) because of conserved structure, chromosomal location, and cytokine-like properties has become the focus of attention of multiple laboratories. When administered by transfection or adenovirus-transduction into a spectrum of tumor cell types, melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) induces apoptosis, whereas no toxicity is apparent in normal cells. mda-7/IL-24 displays potent "bystander antitumor" activity and also has the capacity to enhance radiation lethality, to induce immune-regulatory activities, and to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Based on these remarkable attributes and effective antitumor therapy in animal models, this cytokine has taken the important step of entering the clinic. In a Phase I clinical trial, intratumoral injections of adenovirus-administered mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) was safe, elicited tumor-regulatory and immune-activating processes, and provided clinically significant activity. This review highlights our current understanding of the diverse activities and properties of this novel cytokine, with potential to become a prominent gene therapy for cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)596-628
Number of pages33
JournalPharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume111
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2006

Keywords

  • Angiogenesis
  • Antitumor bystander activity
  • Cell signaling
  • Differentiation therapy of cancer
  • Phase I clinical trial
  • Programmed cell death
  • Radiosensitization
  • mda-7/IL-24

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