Minichromosomal maintenance (MCM) proteins are participants of DNA replication and may represent more accurate markers in determining the proliferative fraction within a tumor than proliferative marker Ki-67. Our study investigated the correlation between MCM4 and MCM7 expression and Ki-67, Bmi1, and cyclin E expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and precancerous lesions. MCM4 and MCM7 expression had similar distribution as Ki-67 and Bmi1 expression in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions. The mean percentage of MCM4, MCM7, and Ki-67 expression increased from squamous epithelium (5.5%, 7.3%, and 5.9%, respectively), to columnar cell metaplasia (11.2, 13.5%, and 3.4%), Barrett's esophagus (27.7%, 35.3%, and 8.3%), low-grade dysplasia (42.6%, 52.2%, and 12.9%), high-grade dysplasia (63.2%, 77.7%, and 29.6%), adenocarcinoma (61.3%, 75.5%, and 24.5%), and squamous cell carcinoma (74.1, 85.4%, and 36.3%). The percentages of MCM4 and MCM7 expression were significantly higher than Ki-67 expression. Using univariate analysis we found a high percentage of MCM4 expression (>70%) to be significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and shorter survival in the adenocarcinoma group. We also demonstrated the percentage of MCM4 and MCM7 expression to be significantly correlated with Ki-67, Bmi1, and cyclin E expression in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions. MCM4 and MCM7 may serve as more sensitive proliferative markers for the evaluation of esophageal lesions.
- Barrett's esophagus
- Esophageal adenocarcinoma
- Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma