MB-DECTNet: a model-based unrolling network for accurate 3D dual-energy CT reconstruction from clinically acquired helical scans

Tao Ge, Rui Liao, Maria Medrano, David Politte, Jeffrey F. Williamson, Joseph A. O’Sullivan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective. Over the past several decades, dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging has seen significant advancements due to its ability to distinguish between materials. DECT statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) has exhibited potential for noise reduction and enhanced accuracy. However, its slow convergence and substantial computational demands render the elapsed time for 3D DECT SIR often clinically unacceptable. The objective of this study is to accelerate 3D DECT SIR while maintaining subpercentage or near-subpercentage accuracy. Approach. We incorporate DECT SIR into a deep-learning model-based unrolling network for 3D DECT reconstruction (MB-DECTNet), which can be trained end-to-end. This deep learning-based approach is designed to learn shortcuts between initial conditions and the stationary points of iterative algorithms while preserving the unbiased estimation property of model-based algorithms. MB-DECTNet comprises multiple stacked update blocks, each containing a data consistency layer (DC) and a spatial mixer layer, with the DC layer functioning as a one-step update from any traditional iterative algorithm. Main results. The quantitative results indicate that our proposed MB-DECTNet surpasses both the traditional image-domain technique (MB-DECTNet reduces average bias by a factor of 10) and a pure deep learning method (MB-DECTNet reduces average bias by a factor of 8.8), offering the potential for accurate attenuation coefficient estimation, akin to traditional statistical algorithms, but with considerably reduced computational costs. This approach achieves 0.13% bias and 1.92% mean absolute error and reconstructs a full image of a head in less than 12 min. Additionally, we show that the MB-DECTNet output can serve as an initializer for DECT SIR, leading to further improvements in results. Significance. This study presents a model-based deep unrolling network for accurate 3D DECT reconstruction, achieving subpercentage error in estimating virtual monoenergetic images for a full head at 60 and 150 keV in 30 min, representing a 40-fold speedup compared to traditional approaches. These findings have significant implications for accelerating DECT SIR and making it more clinically feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Article number245009
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Volume68
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 21 2023

Keywords

  • CT reconstruction
  • deep learning
  • deep unrolling
  • dual-energy CT
  • material decomposition
  • model-based learning

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