Introduction: Coronary sinus accessory pathways (CSAPs), atrioventricular connections formed by the coronary sinus myocardial coat, have been described in adult patients, but not systematically described in pediatric patients. Methods: Patients who underwent CSAP ablation were compared to patients with right posteroseptal (RPS) pathway ablation (control group) from November 2004 to June 2007. Retrospective reviews of preablation 12-lead electrocardiogram (EKG), fluoroscopic, and intracardiac electrogram data were then performed to identify electrophysiologic markers of CSAP. Results: A total of 23 patients were identified: 13 with CSAP and 10 with RPS pathways. Preablation EKGs demonstrated preexcitation in 8/10 (80%) patients with RPS pathways versus 9/13 (69%) patients with CSAP (P = 0.66). Preexcitation with a negative delta wave in lead II was seen in 5/9 (56%) patients with CSAP versus 0/8 in RPS (P = 0.029), and preexcitation with a positive delta wave in augmented vector right (aVR) was seen in 9/9 (100%) patients with CSAP versus 3/8 (37.5%) with RPS (P = 0.009). Accessory pathway (AP) potentials were seen on the coronary sinus (CS) catheter in 6/13 (46%) of CSAP and in 0 RPS ablations (P = 0.019). Recurrence of tachycardia occurred in 5/13 (38%) of patients with CSAP and 1/10 (10%) of patients with RPS pathways (P = 0.18). Conclusions: CSAPs should be considered when preablation EKG demonstrates preexcitation with a negative delta wave in lead II and a positive delta wave in aVR, and if an AP potential is seen on the CS catheter. Recurrence of tachycardia postablation or the need for multiple ablations should raise suspicion for a CSAP.
- Catheter ablation
- Radiofrequency ablation