Management of Venous Outflow Complications After Liver Transplantation

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Abstract

Liver transplantation can be complicated by stenosis of the hepatic venous or inferior vena cava outflow. Venous outflow stenosis occurs at rates of 1 to 6% depending on the type of anastomosis. Stenoses can develop acutely as a result of technical problems or can present much later after the transplant due to intimal hyperplasia or perianastomotic fibrosis. Common clinical presentations include hepatic dysfunction, liver engorgement, ascites, abdominal pain, and occasionally variceal bleeding. Treatment can generally be accomplished via a transjugular approach, but percutaneous transhepatic access may be needed when the anastomosis cannot be catheterized from the jugular access. Angioplasty can achieve technical success in restoring anastomotic patency in close to 100% of cases, but restenosis is frequent. Repeat angioplasties may be needed. In adults and pediatric patients with adult sized hepatic veins, stenting may be a better option. Resolution of clinical signs and symptoms is seen in 73 to 100% of cases. Major complications are uncommon, with stent migration being one of the more difficult complications to manage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-245
Number of pages6
JournalTechniques in vascular and interventional radiology
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2007

Keywords

  • hepatic transplantation
  • venous anastomotic stenosis
  • venous angioplasty
  • venous stenting

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