Purpose of Review: Review the current literature regarding the management of grade IV renal injuries in children. Recent Findings: Children are at increased risk for renal trauma compared to adults due to differences in anatomy. Newer grading systems have been proposed and are reviewed. Observation of most grade IV renal injuries is safe. Operative intervention is necessary for the unstable patient to control life-threatening bleeding with either angioembolization or open exploration. Symptomatic urinomas may require percutaneous drainage and/or endoscopic stent placement. Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) disruption, seen more often in children, requires immediate surgical repair. Summary: Grade IV renal injuries in children are increasingly managed in a conservative manner.
- Grade IV laceration
- Renal trauma