Management of Clinical Stage I Germ Cell Tumors

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Experience demonstrates multiple paths to cure for patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer. Because all options should provide a long-term disease-free rate near 100%, overall survival is no longer relevant in decision making, allowing practitioners to factor in quality of life, toxicity, cost, and impact on compliance. Surveillance for clinical stage I seminoma and clinical stage I nonseminoma has become the preferred option. The contrarian view is that a risk-adapted approach should persist, with surveillance for low-risk individuals and active therapy high-risk individuals. However, results obtained in unselected patients provide a strong argument against the need for such an approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-362
Number of pages10
JournalUrologic Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • Cancer
  • Germ cell tumors
  • Stage I
  • Testicular cancer


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