Mammography of breast calcifications

Malak Itani, Aaron T. Griffin, Gary J. Whitman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Calcifications are commonly encountered on mammography. Calcifications are assessed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS ®) lexicon. Calcifications may be categorized as benign, of intermediate concern or malignant. Benign calcifications include skin, vascular, coarse, rod-like, round, punctate, lucent-centered eggshell and suture calcifications, along with milk of calcium. Calcifications of intermediate concern include amorphous and coarse heterogeneous calcifications. Fine pleomorphic and fine linear calcifications are considered to likely be malignant. Calcifications may be diffuse, regional, clustered, linear or segmental. Size, number and stability are also used to classify calcifications. Characterization and management of calcifications are based on the most worrisome feature(s). Calcifications should be evaluated with high-quality mammographic images, including magnification views in the craniocaudal and the straight lateral projections. Suspicious calcifications should be sampled with stereotactic core biopsy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-74
Number of pages12
JournalImaging in Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2013


  • benign breast calcification
  • breast biopsy
  • breast calcification
  • stereotactic breast biopsy


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