Major microbiota dysbiosis in severe obesity: Fate after bariatric surgery

Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Edi Prifti, Eugeni Belda, Farid Ichou, Brandon D. Kayser, Maria Carlota Dao, Eric O. Verger, Lyamine Hedjazi, Jean Luc Bouillot, Jean Marc Chevallier, Nicolas Pons, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Florence Levenez, Stanislav Dusko Ehrlich, Joel Dore, Jean Daniel Zucker, Karine Clément

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

183 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives Decreased gut microbial gene richness (MGR) and compositional changes are associated with adverse metabolism in overweight or moderate obesity, but lack characterisation in severe obesity. Bariatric surgery (BS) improves metabolism and inflammation in severe obesity and is associated with gut microbiota modifications. Here, we characterised severe obesityassociated dysbiosis (ie, MGR, microbiota composition and functional characteristics) and assessed whether BS would rescue these changes. Design Sixty-one severely obese subjects, candidates for adjustable gastric banding (AG B, n=20) or Roux-en-Ygastric bypass (RYGB, n=41), were enrolled. Twenty-four subjects were followed at 1, 3 and 12 months post-BS. Gut microbiota and serum metabolome were analysed using shotgun metagenomics and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Confirmation groups were included. Results L ow gene richness (LGC) was present in 75% of patients and correlated with increased trunk-fat mass and comorbidities (type 2 diabetes, hypertension and severity). Seventy-eight metagenomic species were altered with LGC, among which 50% were associated with adverse body composition and metabolic phenotypes. Nine serum metabolites (including glutarate, 3-methoxyphenylacetic acid and L-histidine) and functional modules containing protein families involved in their metabolism were strongly associated with low MGR. BS increased MGR 1 year postsurgery, but most RYGB patients remained with low MGR 1 year post- BS, despite greater metabolic improvement than AG B patients. Conclusions We identified major gut microbiota alterations in severe obesity, which include decreased MGR and related functional pathways linked with metabolic deteriorations. The lack of full rescue post- BS calls for additional strategies to improve the gut microbiota ecosystem and microbiome-host interactions in severe obesity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-82
Number of pages13
JournalGut
Volume68
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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