Maintenance of genetic variation in human personality: Testing evolutionary models by estimating heritability due to common causal variants and investigating the effect of distant inbreeding

Karin J.H. Verweij, Jian Yang, Jari Lahti, Juha Veijola, Mirka Hintsanen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Kati Heinonen, Anneli Pouta, Anu Katriina Pesonen, Elisabeth Widen, Anja Taanila, Matti Isohanni, Jouko Miettunen, Aarno Palotie, Lars Penke, Susan K. Service, Andrew C. Heath, Grant W. Montgomery, Olli Raitakari, Mika KähönenJorma Viikari, Katri Räikkönen, Johan G. Eriksson, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Nicholas G. Martin, Marjo Riitta Järvelin, Peter M. Visscher, Matthew C. Keller, Brendan P. Zietsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations

Abstract

Personality traits are basic dimensions of behavioral variation, and twin, family, and adoption studies show that around 30% of the between-individual variation is due to genetic variation. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding the evolutionary basis of this genetic variation. Several evolutionary mechanisms could explain how genetic variation is maintained in traits, and each of these makes predictions in terms of the relative contribution of rare and common genetic variants to personality variation, the magnitude of nonadditive genetic influences, and whether personality is affected by inbreeding. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from > 8000 individuals, we estimated that little variation in the Cloninger personality dimensions (7.2% on average) is due to the combined effect of common, additive genetic variants across the genome, suggesting that most heritable variation in personality is due to rare variant effects and/or a combination of dominance and epistasis. Furthermore, higher levels of inbreeding were associated with less socially desirable personality trait levels in three of the four personality dimensions. These findings are consistent with genetic variation in personality traits having been maintained by mutation-selection balance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3238-3251
Number of pages14
JournalEvolution
Volume66
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2012

Keywords

  • Antagonistic pleiotropy
  • Balancing selection
  • Behavioral syndromes
  • Correlational selection
  • Evolution
  • Mutation
  • Mutation-selection balance
  • Neutral
  • Personality
  • Temperament
  • Trade-offs

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