Expansion microscopy enables nanoimaging with conventional microscopes by physically and isotropically magnifying preserved biological specimens embedded in a crosslinked water-swellable hydrogel. Current expansion microscopy protocols require prior treatment with reactive anchoring chemicals to link specific labels and biomolecule classes to the gel. We describe a strategy called Magnify, which uses a mechanically sturdy gel that retains nucleic acids, proteins and lipids without the need for a separate anchoring step. Magnify expands biological specimens up to 11 times and facilitates imaging of cells and tissues with effectively around 25-nm resolution using a diffraction-limited objective lens of about 280 nm on conventional optical microscopes or with around 15 nm effective resolution if combined with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging. We demonstrate Magnify on a broad range of biological specimens, providing insight into nanoscopic subcellular structures, including synaptic proteins from mouse brain, podocyte foot processes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human kidney and defects in cilia and basal bodies in drug-treated human lung organoids.