Iba1 is a macrophage/microglia-specific calcium-binding protein that is involved in RacGTPase-dependent membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. In this study, we introduced Iba1 into Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and demonstrated the enhancement of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced membrane ruffling and chemotaxis. Wortmannin treatment did not completely suppressed this enhanced membrane ruffling in Iba1-expressing cells, whereas it did in Iba1-nonexpressing cells, suggesting that the enhancement is mediated through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-independent signaling pathway. Porcine aorta endothelial cells transfected with expression constructs of Iba1 and PDGF receptor add-back mutants were used to analyze the signaling pathway responsible for the Iba1-induced enhancement of membrane ruffling. In the absence of Iba1 expression, PDGF did not induced membrane ruffling in cells expressing the Tyr-1021 receptor mutant, which is capable of activating phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) but not PI3K. In contrast, in the presence of Iba1 expression, membrane ruffling was formed in cells expressing the Tyr-1021 mutant. In addition, Rac was shown to be activated during membrane ruffling in cells expressing Iba1 and the Tyr-1021 mutant. Furthermore, dominant negative forms of PLC-γ completely suppressed PDGF-induced Iba1-dependent membrane ruffling and Rac activation. These results indicate the existence of a novel signaling pathway where PLC-γ activates Rac in a manner dependent on Iba1.