Myeloid cells are known mediators of hypertension, but their role in initiating renin-induced hypertension has not been studied. Vitamin D deficiency causes pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration in metabolic tissues and is linked to renin-mediated hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that impaired vitamin D signaling in macrophages causes hypertension using conditional knockout of the myeloid vitamin D receptor in mice (KODMAC). These mice develop renin-dependent hypertension due to macrophage infiltration of the vasculature and direct activation of renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cell renin production. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in knockout macrophages increases miR-106b-5p secretion, which stimulates JG cell renin production via repression of transcription factors E2f1 and Pde3b. Moreover, in wild-type recipient mice of KODMAC/miR106b−/− bone marrow, knockout of miR-106b-5p prevents the hypertension and JG cell renin production induced by KODMAC macrophages, suggesting myeloid-specific, miR-106b-5p-dependent effects. These findings confirm macrophage miR-106b-5p secretion from impaired vitamin D receptor signaling causes inflammation-induced hypertension.