Machine learning based algorithms to impute PaO2 from SpO2 values and development of an online calculator

Shuangxia Ren, Jill A. Zupetic, Mohammadreza Tabary, Rebecca DeSensi, Mehdi Nouraie, Xinghua Lu, Richard D. Boyce, Janet S. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We created an online calculator using machine learning (ML) algorithms to impute the partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of delivered oxygen (FiO2) ratio using the non-invasive peripheral saturation of oxygen (SpO2) and compared the accuracy of the ML models we developed to published equations. We generated three ML algorithms (neural network, regression, and kernel-based methods) using seven clinical variable features (N = 9900 ICU events) and subsequently three features (N = 20,198 ICU events) as input into the models. Data from mechanically ventilated ICU patients were obtained from the publicly available Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC III) database and used for analysis. Compared to seven features, three features (SpO2, FiO2 and PEEP) were sufficient to impute PaO2 from the SpO2. Any of the ML models enabled imputation of PaO2 from the SpO2 with lower error and showed greater accuracy in predicting PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 150 compared to the previously published log-linear and non-linear equations. To address potential hidden hypoxemia that occurs more frequently in Black patients, we conducted sensitivity analysis and show ML models outperformed published equations in both Black and White patients. Imputation using data from an independent validation cohort of ICU patients (N = 133) showed greater accuracy with ML models.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8235
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Machine learning based algorithms to impute PaO2 from SpO2 values and development of an online calculator'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this