Two resident macrophage subsets reside in peritoneal fluid. Macrophages also reside within mesothelial membranes lining the peritoneal cavity, but they remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified two macrophage populations (LYVE1hi MHC IIlo-hi CX3CR1gfplo/− and LYVE1lo/− MHC IIhi CX3CR1gfphi subsets) in the mesenteric and parietal mesothelial linings of the peritoneum. These macrophages resembled LYVE1+ macrophages within surface membranes of numerous organs. Fatemapping approaches and analysis of newborn mice showed that LYVE1hi macrophages predominantly originated from embryonic-derived progenitors and were controlled by CSF1 made by Wt1+ stromal cells. Their gene expression profile closely overlapped with ovarian tumor-associated macrophages previously described in the omentum. Indeed, syngeneic epithelial ovarian tumor growth was strongly reduced following in vivo ablation of LYVE1hi macrophages, including in mice that received omentectomy to dissociate the role from omental macrophages. These data reveal that the peritoneal compartment contains at least four resident macrophage populations and that LYVE1hi mesothelial macrophages drive tumor growth independently of the omentum.