Cardiolipin (also known as PDL6) is an indispensable lipid required for mitochondrial respiration that is generated through de novo synthesis and remodeling. Here, the cardiolipin remodeling enzyme, acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin-acyltransferase-1 (Alcat1; SwissProt ID, Q6UWP7) is destabilized in epithelia by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairing mitochondrial function. Exposure to LPS selectively decreased levels of carbon 20 (C20)-containing cardiolipin molecular species, whereas the content of C18 or C16 species was not significantly altered, consistent with decreased levels of Alcat1. Alcat1 is a labile protein that is lysosomally degraded by the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp-Cullin-F-box containing the Fbxo28 subunit (SCFFbxo28) that targets Alcat1 for monoubiquitylation at residue K183. Interestingly, K183 is also an acetylation-acceptor site, and acetylation conferred stability to the enzyme. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) interacted with Alcat1, and expression of a plasmid encoding HDAC2 or treatment of cells with LPS deacetylated and destabilized Alcat1, whereas treatment of cells with a pan-HDAC inhibitor increased Alcat1 levels. Alcat1 degradation was partially abrogated in LPS-treated cells that had been silenced for HDAC2 or treated with MLN4924, an inhibitor of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases. Thus, LPS increases HDAC2-mediated Alcat1 deacetylation and facilitates SCF-Fbxo28-mediated disposal of Alcat1, thus impairing mitochondrial integrity.