Lowest Instrumented Vertebra Selection to S1 or Ilium Versus L4 or L5 in Adult Spinal Deformity: Factors for Consideration in 349 Patients With a Mean 46-Month Follow-Up

Yu Cheng Yao, Han Jo Kim, Mathieu Bannwarth, Justin Smith, Shay Bess, Eric Klineberg, Christopher P. Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Douglas Burton, Munish Gupta, Gregory M. Mundis, Richard Hostin, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Objective: To compare the outcomes of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) following spinal fusion with the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) at L4/L5 versus S1/ilium. Methods: A multicenter ASD database was evaluated. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on LIV levels—groups L (fusion to L4/L5) and S (fusion to S1/ilium). Both groups were propensity matched by age and preoperative radiographic alignments. Patient demographics, operative details, radiographic parameters, revision rates, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores were compared. Results: Overall, 349 patients had complete data, with a mean follow-up of 46 months. Patients in group S (n = 311) were older and had larger sagittal and coronal plane deformities than those in group L (n = 38). After matching, 28 patients were allocated to each group with similar demographic, radiographic, and clinical parameters. Sagittal alignment restoration at postoperative week 6 was significantly better in group S than in group L, but it was similar in both groups at the 2-year follow-up. Fusion to S1/ilium involved a longer operating time, higher PJK rates, and greater PJK angles than that to L4/L5. There were no significant differences in the complication and revision rates between the groups. Both groups showed significant improvements in HRQOL scores. Conclusions: Fusion to S1/ilium had better sagittal alignment restoration at postoperative week 6 and involved higher PJK rates and greater PJK angles than that to L4/L5. The clinical outcomes and rates of revision surgery and complications were similar between the groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)932-939
Number of pages8
JournalGlobal Spine Journal
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • adult spinal deformity
  • complication
  • fusion rate
  • health-related quality of life scores
  • lowest instrumented level
  • propensity matched
  • proximal junctional kyphosis

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