Although allogeneic transplantation is a curative therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), treatment-related mortality is still a major cause of posttransplantation mortality, especially for patients older than 40 years. We investigated, in a phase II trial, the role of a low-dose (550 cGy) high-dose rate (35 cGy/min) single-exposure total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimen for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation in patients with CML. Between June 1997 and August 2000, 30 adult patients with CML underwent cytokine-mobilized allogeneic PBSC transplantation from HLA-matched siblings following administration of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg per day intravenously on days -2 and -1) and single-dose TBI (550 cGy delivered at 30 cGy/min on day 0). Cyclosporine A alone was administered for prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Median patient age was 47 years (range, 21-63 years), with 23 patients (77%) older than 40 years. The preparative regimen was well tolerated. Grade 4 toxicities and oral mucositis were not observed. Graft failure did not occur. Severe acute GVHD was observed in 5 patients (17%). The median follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-39 months). Cytogenetic or hematologic relapse was detected in 3 patients (10%), 2 of whom subsequently entered remission following a taper of immunosuppression. Nonrelapse mortality occurred in 5 patients (17%), and the Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival at 2 years was 83% (95% confidence interval, 70%-97%). In summary, this low-dose TBI-based preparative regimen resulted in uniform donor engraftment, with markedly reduced organ toxicity and nonrelapse mortality, in this relatively older cohort of patients with CML.
- Chronic myeloid leukemia
- Single-dose total body irradiation
- Transplant-related toxicity