Purpose: To evaluate serum testosterone and the incidence of biochemical hypogonadism in men treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Serum testosterone was evaluated prospectively in 51 men at pretreatment and at 6-month time points for 2 years posttreatment with IMRT for prostate cancer. Forty-one patients (80%) were treated with definitive intent and 10 patients with postprostatectomy radiation to median total doses of 7380 cGy and 6480 cGy, respectively. No patients received hormone therapy within 12 months of any serum testosterone value. Biochemical hypogonadism was defined as a total serum testosterone level ≤. 300 ng/dL. Incidental testicular dose was calculated using planning software when computed tomography information was available (n = 21) and using a published method of estimation when not available (n = 24), and was available for 45 patients. Results: A statistically significant decrease in testosterone, though small in magnitude, was seen at 6 months after completion of therapy, with no significant difference by 1 year after completion of therapy. There was no increase in biochemical hypogonadism after IMRT. Below-normal pretreatment testosterone was not associated with a transient decrease. Estimated cumulative testicular dose, including dose from daily imaging, was not associated with a change in testosterone, nor was radiation therapy prescription dose or treatment intent (postoperative vs definitive). Conclusions: The mild transient decrease in serum testosterone following IMRT monotherapy for prostate cancer is not associated with new biochemical hypogonadism.