Purpose: Low-dose and very low-dose intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) have been reported to be successful in short-term treatment of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), down to an initial dose of 0.004 mg. We now report 12-month outcomes for these infants. Design: Masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. Participants: One hundred twenty prematurely born infants with type 1 ROP. Methods: A cohort of 120 infants with type 1 ROP in at least 1 eye from 2 sequential dose de-escalation studies of low-dose IVB (0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, and 0.031 mg) or very low-dose IVB (0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, and 0.002 mg) to the study eye; the fellow eye (if also type 1) received 1 dose level higher of IVB. After primary success or failure at 4 weeks, clinical management was at investigator discretion, including all additional treatment. Main Outcome Measures: Reactivation of severe ROP by 6 months corrected age, additional treatments, retinal and other ocular structural outcomes, and refractive error at 12 months corrected age. Results: Sixty-two of 113 study eyes (55%) and 55 of 98 fellow eyes (56%) received additional treatment. Of the study eyes, 31 (27%) received additional ROP treatment, and 31 (27%) received prophylactic laser therapy for persistent avascular retina. No trend toward a higher risk of additional ROP treatment related to initial IVB doses was found. However, time to reactivation among study eyes was shorter in eyes that received very low-dose IVB (mean, 76.4 days) than in those that received low-dose IVB (mean, 85.7 days). At 12 months, poor retinal outcomes and anterior segment abnormalities both were uncommon (3% and 5%, respectively), optic atrophy was noted in 10%, median refraction was mildly myopic (–0.31 diopter), and strabismus was present in 29% of infants. Conclusions: Retinal structural outcomes were very good after low- and very low-dose IVB as initial treatment for type 1 ROP, although many eyes received additional treatment. The rate of reactivation of severe ROP was not associated with dose; however, a post hoc data-driven analysis suggested that reactivation was sooner with very low doses.
- Pediatric ophthalmology
- Retinopathy of prematurity