Mucin-type core 1-derived O-glycans, one of the major types of O-glycans, are highly expressed in mammary gland epithelium. Abnormal O-glycans such as Tn antigen are found in over 90% of breast cancers; however, the in vivo role of these aberrant O-glycans in the etiology of breast cancer is unclear. We generated mice with mammary epithelial specific deletion of core 1-derived O-glycans. By crossing with two spontaneous mouse breast cancer models, we determined that loss of core 1-derived O-glycans delays the onset and progression of breast cancer development. Deficiency of core 1 O-glycosylation impaired the localization of Muc1, a major O-glycoprotein, on the apical surfaces of mammary epithelium. Signaling mediated by Muc1, which is critical for breast cancer development, was also defective in the absence of core 1 O-glycans. This study reveals an unexpected role of core 1-derived O-glycans in breast cancer development in mice.