Esophageal adenocarcinoma often presents at an advanced stage and has a dismal prognosis. Current prognostic markers have limited utility. ARID1A is implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Loss of ARID1A expression correlates with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency in other tumors. We hypothesized that ARID1A loss is associated with prognosis and DNA MMR protein deficiency in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Tissue microarrays representing 316 surgically resected esophageal adenocarcinomas without neoadjuvant treatment were evaluated for ARID1A and MMR proteins by immunohistochemistry. Loss of ARID1A expression (ARID1A-loss) was detected in 41 of 316 (13%) adenocarcinomas. MMR deficiency was identified in 5% (17/316) but was detected more frequently in ARID1A-loss adenocarcinomas (13/41, 32%) than in ARID1A-retained adenocarcinomas (4/275, 1%; P <.001). Morphologically, ARID1A-loss adenocarcinomas frequently demonstrated peritumoral lymphoid aggregates (90%) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (51%). In patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease (stages III or IV, N = 169), patients with ARID1A-loss adenocarcinomas (N = 22) had longer overall survival than patients with ARID1A-retained adenocarcinomas (median [month]: 26 vs. 16, P =.010). In these patients, ARID1A-loss correlated with a 56% reduction in mortality independent of other prognostic factors (P =.007). In summary, loss of ARID1A expression is associated with DNA MMR protein deficiency in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, ARID1A loss is independently associated with a more favorable prognosis for patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal adenocarcinomas.
- Barrett's esophagus
- Microsatellite instability
- Peritumoral lymphoid aggregates
- Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes