Longitudinal Imaging of T Cells and Inflammatory Demyelination in a Preclinical Model of Multiple Sclerosis Using 18F-FAraG PET and MRI

Caroline Guglielmetti, Jelena Levi, Tony L. Huynh, Brice Tiret, Joseph Blecha, Ryan Tang, Henry VanBrocklin, Myriam M. Chaumeil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lymphocytes and innate immune cells are key drivers of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are the main target of MS disease-modifying therapies (DMT). Ex vivo analyses of MS lesions have revealed cellular heterogeneity and variable T cell levels, which may have important implications for patient stratification and choice of DMT. Although MRI has proven valuable to monitor DMT efficacy, its lack of specificity for cellular subtypes highlights the need for complementary methods to improve lesion characterization. Here, we evaluated the potential of 29-deoxy-29-18F-fluoro-9-b-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (18F-FAraG) PET imaging to noninvasively assess infiltrating T cells and to provide, in combination with MRI, a novel tool to determine lesion types. Methods: We used a novel MS mouse model that combines cuprizone and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to reproducibly induce 2 brain inflammatory lesion types, differentiated by their T cell content. 18F-FAraG PET imaging, T2-weighted MRI, and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI were performed before disease induction, during demyelination with high levels of innate immune cells, and after T cell infiltration. Fingolimod immunotherapy was used to evaluate the ability of PET and MRI to detect therapy response. Ex vivo immunofluorescence analyses for T cells, microglia/macrophages, myelin, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity were performed to validate the in vivo findings. Results: 18F-FAraG signal was significantly increased in the brain and spinal cord at the time point of T cell infiltration. 18F-FAraG signal from white matter (corpus callosum) and gray matter (cortex, hippocampus) further correlated with T cell density. T2-weighted MRI detected white matter lesions independently of T cells. T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI indicated BBB disruption at the time point of T cell infiltration. Fingolimod treatment prevented motor deficits and decreased T cell and microglia/macrophage levels. In agreement, 18F-FAraG signal was decreased in the brain and spinal cord of fingolimod-treated mice; T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI revealed intact BBB, whereas T2-weighted MRI findings remained unchanged. Conclusion: The combination of MRI and 18F-FAraG PET enables detection of inflammatory demyelination and T cell infiltration in an MS mouse model, providing a new way to evaluate lesion heterogeneity during disease progression and after DMT. On clinical translation, these methods hold great potential for stratifying patients, monitoring MS progression, and determining therapy responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-146
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Volume63
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

Keywords

  • Central nervous system
  • F-FAraG PET imaging
  • MRI
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • T cells

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