Rationale: Performance of blood transcriptomic tuberculosis (TB) signatures in longitudinal studies and effects of TB-preventive therapy and coinfection with HIV or respiratory organisms on transcriptomic signatures has not been systematically studied. Objectives: We evaluated longitudinal kinetics of an 11-gene blood transcriptomic TB signature, RISK11, and effects of TB-preventive therapy (TPT) and respiratory organisms on RISK11 signature score, in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected individuals. Methods: RISK11 was measured in a longitudinal study of RISK11-guided TPT in HIV-uninfected adults, a cross-sectional respiratory organisms cohort, or a longitudinal study in people living with HIV (PLHIV). HIV-uninfected RISK11+ participants were randomized to TPT or no TPT; RISK11- participants received no TPT. PLHIV received standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy and TPT. In the cross-sectional respiratory organisms cohort, viruses and bacteria in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Measurements and Main Results: RISK11+ status was transient in most of the 128 HIV-negative participants with longitudinal samples; more than 70% of RISK11+ participants reverted to RISK11- by 3 months, irrespective of TPT. By comparison, reversion from a RISK11+ state was less common in 645 PLHIV (42.1%). Non-HIV viral and nontuberculous bacterial organisms were detected in 7.2% and 38.9% of the 1,000 respiratory organisms cohort participants, respectively, and among those investigated for TB, 3.8% had prevalent disease. Median RISK11 scores (%) were higher in participants with viral organisms alone (46.7%), viral and bacterial organisms (42.8%), or prevalent TB (85.7%) than those with bacterial organisms other than TB (13.4%) or no organisms (14.2%). RISK11 could not discriminate between prevalent TB and viral organisms. Conclusions: Positive RISK11 signature status is often transient, possibly due to intercurrent viral infection, highlighting potentially important challenges for implementation of these biomarkers as new tools for TB control.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine|
|State||Published - Dec 15 2021|
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Respiratory tract infections